Technology can allow us to study and understand the world in order to take better care of it. From understanding animal populations to being able to predict climate change, to finding our way around the world, IT has a big effect on the environment; Sometimes for better, sometimes for worse.
This is process of collecting readings from sensors without any human intervention needed over a long period of time. Data logging has been used in weather stations to more accurately predict the weather, and has even been used by NASA to collect data about other planets. Atmosphere, temperature, and wind speed have all been captured over time on Mars for the Pathfinder project. Data logging is also used in nuclear power stations to help monitor the reactors and alert staff to potential issues.
Analogue vs Digital Data
Analogue data is also known as continuous data which is measured.
Digital data which is also known as discrete data, is counted.
Physical things such as speed, temperature, and pressure are analogue signals, as they do not stop (You can't turn off a temperature!?). As a computer works with digital data, an analogue signal must be interepreted for a computer to understand it. An Analogue to Digital Convertor (ADC) takes care of this by sampling data at various frequencies of an analogue signal in order to digitise it. The higher the sample rate, the more accurate the data. E.g. sound sampled at 128kHz (12,800 samples per second) would be much higher quality than a CD sampled at 44.1kHz (44,100 samples per second).